Version: 5.x

Connect

connect

connect([mapStateToProps], [mapDispatchToProps], [mergeProps], [options])

Connects a React component to a Redux store. connect is a facade around connectAdvanced, providing a convenient API for the most common use cases.

It does not modify the component class passed to it; instead, it returns a new, connected component class for you to use.

Arguments

  • [mapStateToProps(state, [ownProps]): stateProps] (Function): If this argument is specified, the new component will subscribe to Redux store updates. This means that any time the store is updated, mapStateToProps will be called. The results of mapStateToProps must be a plain object, which will be merged into the component’s props. If you don't want to subscribe to store updates, pass null or undefined in place of mapStateToProps.

    If your mapStateToProps function is declared as taking two parameters, it will be called with the store state as the first parameter and the props passed to the connected component as the second parameter, and will also be re-invoked whenever the connected component receives new props as determined by shallow equality comparisons. (The second parameter is normally referred to as ownProps by convention.)

    Note: in advanced scenarios where you need more control over the rendering performance, mapStateToProps() can also return a function. In this case, that function will be used as mapStateToProps() for a particular component instance. This allows you to do per-instance memoization. You can refer to #279 and the tests it adds for more details. Most apps never need this.

    The mapStateToProps function's first argument is the entire Redux store’s state and it returns an object to be passed as props. It is often called a selector. Use reselect to efficiently compose selectors and compute derived data.

  • [mapDispatchToProps(dispatch, [ownProps]): dispatchProps] (Object or Function): If an object is passed, each function inside it is assumed to be a Redux action creator. An object with the same function names, but with every action creator wrapped into a dispatch call so they may be invoked directly, will be merged into the component’s props.

    If a function is passed, it will be given dispatch as the first parameter. It’s up to you to return an object that somehow uses dispatch to bind action creators in your own way. (Tip: you may use the bindActionCreators() helper from Redux.)

    If your mapDispatchToProps function is declared as taking two parameters, it will be called with dispatch as the first parameter and the props passed to the connected component as the second parameter, and will be re-invoked whenever the connected component receives new props. (The second parameter is normally referred to as ownProps by convention.)

    If you do not supply your own mapDispatchToProps function or object full of action creators, the default mapDispatchToProps implementation just injects dispatch into your component’s props.

    Note: in advanced scenarios where you need more control over the rendering performance, mapDispatchToProps() can also return a function. In this case, that function will be used as mapDispatchToProps() for a particular component instance. This allows you to do per-instance memoization. You can refer to #279 and the tests it adds for more details. Most apps never need this.

  • [mergeProps(stateProps, dispatchProps, ownProps): props] (Function): If specified, it is passed the result of mapStateToProps(), mapDispatchToProps(), and the parent props. The plain object you return from it will be passed as props to the wrapped component. You may specify this function to select a slice of the state based on props, or to bind action creators to a particular variable from props. If you omit it, Object.assign({}, ownProps, stateProps, dispatchProps) is used by default.

  • [options] (Object) If specified, further customizes the behavior of the connector. In addition to the options passable to connectAdvanced() (see those below), connect() accepts these additional options:

    • [pure] (Boolean): If true, connect() will avoid re-renders and calls to mapStateToProps, mapDispatchToProps, and mergeProps if the relevant state/props objects remain equal based on their respective equality checks. Assumes that the wrapped component is a “pure” component and does not rely on any input or state other than its props and the selected Redux store’s state. Default value: true
    • [areStatesEqual] (Function): When pure, compares incoming store state to its previous value. Default value: strictEqual (===)
    • [areOwnPropsEqual] (Function): When pure, compares incoming props to its previous value. Default value: shallowEqual
    • [areStatePropsEqual] (Function): When pure, compares the result of mapStateToProps to its previous value. Default value: shallowEqual
    • [areMergedPropsEqual] (Function): When pure, compares the result of mergeProps to its previous value. Default value: shallowEqual
    • [storeKey] (String): The key of the context from where to read the store. You probably only need this if you are in the inadvisable position of having multiple stores. Default value: 'store'

The arity of mapStateToProps and mapDispatchToProps determines whether they receive ownProps

Note: ownProps is not passed to mapStateToProps and mapDispatchToProps if the formal definition of the function contains one mandatory parameter (function has length 1). For example, functions defined like below won't receive ownProps as the second argument.

function mapStateToProps(state) {
console.log(state); // state
console.log(arguments[1]); // undefined
}
const mapStateToProps = (state, ownProps = {}) => {
console.log(state); // state
console.log(ownProps); // {}
}

Functions with no mandatory parameters or two parameters will receive ownProps.

const mapStateToProps = (state, ownProps) => {
console.log(state); // state
console.log(ownProps); // ownProps
}
function mapStateToProps() {
console.log(arguments[0]); // state
console.log(arguments[1]); // ownProps
}
const mapStateToProps = (...args) => {
console.log(args[0]); // state
console.log(args[1]); // ownProps
}

Optimizing connect when options.pure is true

When options.pure is true, connect performs several equality checks that are used to avoid unnecessary calls to mapStateToProps, mapDispatchToProps, mergeProps, and ultimately to render. These include areStatesEqual, areOwnPropsEqual, areStatePropsEqual, and areMergedPropsEqual. While the defaults are probably appropriate 99% of the time, you may wish to override them with custom implementations for performance or other reasons. Here are several examples:

  • You may wish to override areStatesEqual if your mapStateToProps function is computationally expensive and is also only concerned with a small slice of your state. For example: areStatesEqual: (next, prev) => prev.entities.todos === next.entities.todos; this would effectively ignore state changes for everything but that slice of state.

  • You may wish to override areStatesEqual to always return false (areStatesEqual: () => false) if you have impure reducers that mutate your store state. (This would likely impact the other equality checks as well, depending on your mapStateToProps function.)

  • You may wish to override areOwnPropsEqual as a way to whitelist incoming props. You'd also have to implement mapStateToProps, mapDispatchToProps and mergeProps to also whitelist props. (It may be simpler to achieve this other ways, for example by using recompose's mapProps.)

  • You may wish to override areStatePropsEqual to use strictEqual if your mapStateToProps uses a memoized selector that will only return a new object if a relevant prop has changed. This would be a very slight performance improvement, since would avoid extra equality checks on individual props each time mapStateToProps is called.

  • You may wish to override areMergedPropsEqual to implement a deepEqual if your selectors produce complex props. ex: nested objects, new arrays, etc. (The deep equal check should be faster than just re-rendering.)

Returns

A higher-order React component class that passes state and action creators into your component derived from the supplied arguments. This is created by connectAdvanced, and details of this higher-order component are covered there.

#### Examples

Inject just dispatch and don't listen to store

export default connect()(TodoApp)

Inject all action creators (addTodo, completeTodo, ...) without subscribing to the store

import * as actionCreators from './actionCreators'
export default connect(null, actionCreators)(TodoApp)

Inject dispatch and every field in the global state

Don’t do this! It kills any performance optimizations because TodoApp will rerender after every state change.
It’s better to have more granular connect() on several components in your view hierarchy that each only
listen to a relevant slice of the state.

export default connect(state => state)(TodoApp)

Inject dispatch and todos

function mapStateToProps(state) {
return { todos: state.todos }
}
export default connect(mapStateToProps)(TodoApp)

Inject todos and all action creators

import * as actionCreators from './actionCreators'
function mapStateToProps(state) {
return { todos: state.todos }
}
export default connect(mapStateToProps, actionCreators)(TodoApp)

Inject todos and all action creators (addTodo, completeTodo, ...) as actions

import * as actionCreators from './actionCreators'
import { bindActionCreators } from 'redux'
function mapStateToProps(state) {
return { todos: state.todos }
}
function mapDispatchToProps(dispatch) {
return { actions: bindActionCreators(actionCreators, dispatch) }
}
export default connect(mapStateToProps, mapDispatchToProps)(TodoApp)

Inject todos and a specific action creator (addTodo)

import { addTodo } from './actionCreators'
import { bindActionCreators } from 'redux'
function mapStateToProps(state) {
return { todos: state.todos }
}
function mapDispatchToProps(dispatch) {
return bindActionCreators({ addTodo }, dispatch)
}
export default connect(mapStateToProps, mapDispatchToProps)(TodoApp)

Inject todos and specific action creators (addTodo and deleteTodo) with shorthand syntax

import { addTodo, deleteTodo } from './actionCreators'
function mapStateToProps(state) {
return { todos: state.todos }
}
const mapDispatchToProps = {
addTodo,
deleteTodo
}
export default connect(mapStateToProps, mapDispatchToProps)(TodoApp)

Inject todos, todoActionCreators as todoActions, and counterActionCreators as counterActions

import * as todoActionCreators from './todoActionCreators'
import * as counterActionCreators from './counterActionCreators'
import { bindActionCreators } from 'redux'
function mapStateToProps(state) {
return { todos: state.todos }
}
function mapDispatchToProps(dispatch) {
return {
todoActions: bindActionCreators(todoActionCreators, dispatch),
counterActions: bindActionCreators(counterActionCreators, dispatch)
}
}
export default connect(mapStateToProps, mapDispatchToProps)(TodoApp)

Inject todos, and todoActionCreators and counterActionCreators together as actions

import * as todoActionCreators from './todoActionCreators'
import * as counterActionCreators from './counterActionCreators'
import { bindActionCreators } from 'redux'
function mapStateToProps(state) {
return { todos: state.todos }
}
function mapDispatchToProps(dispatch) {
return {
actions: bindActionCreators(Object.assign({}, todoActionCreators, counterActionCreators), dispatch)
}
}
export default connect(mapStateToProps, mapDispatchToProps)(TodoApp)

Inject todos, and all todoActionCreators and counterActionCreators directly as props

import * as todoActionCreators from './todoActionCreators'
import * as counterActionCreators from './counterActionCreators'
import { bindActionCreators } from 'redux'
function mapStateToProps(state) {
return { todos: state.todos }
}
function mapDispatchToProps(dispatch) {
return bindActionCreators(Object.assign({}, todoActionCreators, counterActionCreators), dispatch)
}
export default connect(mapStateToProps, mapDispatchToProps)(TodoApp)

Inject todos of a specific user depending on props

import * as actionCreators from './actionCreators'
function mapStateToProps(state, ownProps) {
return { todos: state.todos[ownProps.userId] }
}
export default connect(mapStateToProps)(TodoApp)

Inject todos of a specific user depending on props, and inject props.userId into the action

import * as actionCreators from './actionCreators'
function mapStateToProps(state) {
return { todos: state.todos }
}
function mergeProps(stateProps, dispatchProps, ownProps) {
return Object.assign({}, ownProps, {
todos: stateProps.todos[ownProps.userId],
addTodo: (text) => dispatchProps.addTodo(ownProps.userId, text)
})
}
export default connect(mapStateToProps, actionCreators, mergeProps)(TodoApp)

Factory functions

Factory functions can be used for performance optimizations

import { addTodo } from './actionCreators'
function mapStateToPropsFactory(initialState, initialProps) {
const getSomeProperty= createSelector(...);
const anotherProperty = 200 + initialState[initialProps.another];
return function(state){
return {
anotherProperty,
someProperty: getSomeProperty(state),
todos: state.todos
}
}
}
function mapDispatchToPropsFactory(initialState, initialProps) {
function goToSomeLink(){
initialProps.history.push('some/link');
}
return function(dispatch){
return {
addTodo
}
}
}
export default connect(mapStateToPropsFactory, mapDispatchToPropsFactory)(TodoApp)